We utilize our state-of-the-art competence within rock mechanical and geophysical testing, numerical analyses, inversion algorithms and monitoring instrumentation.
We perform the following studies for CO2 storage:
- Laboratory testing. Direct shear test for determination of frictional properties and fluid flow along fractures and faults. Triaxial test with CO2 injection at relevant pressure and temperatures (i.e. supercritical), measuring seismic and electrical properties. CT imaging during triaxial test and/or CO2 flooding to visualize fluid substitution/deformation and measure geophysical data. Acoustic emission test to evaluate induced seismicity potential.
- Integrity of seals and faults. Analysis of laboratory and field data in combination with numerical analysis (FEM, CO2/multiphase flow, HTM) for evaluating the risk for cap rock fracturing, fault reactivation, CO2 leakage and induced seismicity.
- Monitoring. Instrumentation development, verification and implementation for acoustical and chemical sensing for seabed leakage detection and monitoring.Interpretation and inversion of laboratory and field geophysical data in combination with numerical modelling for application to field scale monitoring of CO2 injection (covering EM, 4D seismic, gravimetry, passive seismic, InSAR).
Norway has a leading position in the international society of CO2 sequestration. NGI is the main partner of several research projects under the CLIMIT programme organized by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) and Gassnova. CLIMIT is a state-sponsored programme to accelerate commercialization of CO2 storage in large scale through economic stimulation of research, development and demonstration.
NGI has been/is member of two centres for environmentally friendly research (FME);
- SUCCESS, period 2010-2017, where NGI was leading a work package on Monitoring.
- NCCS, period 2017- 2024, where NGI is leading a work package on "Structural Derisking" which covers the integrity of cap rock and faults.
Active and recently started RCN projects include:
- NCCS – Industry driven innovation for fast track CCS deployment
- IGCCS – Induced-seismicity geomechanics for controlled CO2 storage in the North Sea
- ACT4Storage – Acoustic and Chemical Technologies for offshore geological carbon storage
- SPHINCSS – Stress Path and Hysteresis effects on Integrity of CO2 Storage Site
- OASIS – Overburden Analysis and Seal Integrity Study for CO2 Sequestration in the North Sea
Several of NGI research activities are focusing on the Smeaheia area, east of Troll field, about 50 km offshore Norway, which has been selected for the first full scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) demonstration project. Statoil and partners Shell and Total have responsibility for developing the storage site (https://www.gassnova.no/en/full-scale/storage).
Through our research, NGI has worked with large scale, pilots and demonstration cases listed below:
- Full scale storage projects: In Salah (Algeria), Sleipner and Snøhvit (Norway)
- Pilot: Longyearbyen storage site (Svalbard, Norway)
- Demonstration: Decatur Illinois (USA), Svelvik CO2FieldLab (Norway)
In addition, NGI has earlier taken part in several research projects. A list over CO2 related field pilots and research project and publication list and also more detailed project descriptions can be found to the right (Read more about)
Figure: Examples of geophysical response of CO2 flow in fracture, visualization in CT scanner of fracture aperture before and after CO2 flooding test and CO2 flooding test in heterogeneous sandstone (Alemu et al., 2013). Geomechanical analysis of the integrated reservoir, seal and fault systems and monitoring on field scale.