NGI has specialized equipment for testing fractures and fractured rock (i.e. stress dependent fluid flow along or across fractures, friction and deformation properties of fractured rock and recording of acoustic emission related to fracturing). We design and perform dedicated tests in a high stress direct shear box, in acoustic emission set-up and a carbon fibre triaxial cell with CT scan visualisation.
Examples of numerical analysis for fracturing in intra reservoir shale (Plaxis), fracture growth during cuttings re-injection (Abacus) and fracture stimulation in chalk (Bifurc).
Direct shear box rig for testing intact and fractured samples. Testing in combination with discrete element modelling using UDEC.
NGI also provides analysis of injection tests (Minifrac, LOT, XLOT, Step rate tests, etc.) and well log data to assess in-situ stresses and reservoir/cap rock integrity along with geomechanical characterization of the subsurface by integrating laboratory data with available field data (e.g. well logs and seismic data).
We have experience with many types of industry and research projects. Some examples of applications for fracture geomechanics are listed below:
- Cap rock and seal integrity related to injection of fluids or CO2 storage (Bohloli et al., 2014)
- Fracture propagation in soft rocks (Jostad et al., 2007; Bohloli & de Pater 2006)
- Modelling for cuttings re-injection (Sturm et al., 2011)
- Fractured reservoirs and stress dependent fluid flow (SUCCESS and PROTECT); Barton and Bandis, 1990)
- Coupling hydro-mechanical field data with microseismic monitoring (Goertz-Allmann et al. 2013, Oye et al., 2012, Aker et al., 2014)
- Unconventional reservoirs and shale gas.