Remote sensing methods and geophysical methods will be used for the extraction of relevant input parameters for the models used in WPs 1-3. Geophysics (EM, ERT, seismo-acoustics) can, for example, be used to model drainage systems and sediment dynamics. NGIs newly developed underwater near-surface geophysics methods (un-derwater ERT and underwater EM) can image the structure of a target area (sediment layers, bedrock topography).

Such information provides background information for the research proposed in the other work packages. In addition, NGI will increase its experience using these new tools. InSAR and Lidar can be used for settlement moni-toring and to track erosion in coastal areas, or – in the case of green lidar – to map near-shore subaquatic topography. Imagery taken from remotely piloted aircraft sys-tems (RPAS) can be assembled to high-resolution digital terrain models, both on-land and in shallow waters.

Already established methods can be employed where needed, e.g., coast line/river shore mapping and monitoring with optical remote sensing, or settlement monitoring in coastal areas by InSAR.